Malleus Maleficarum "The Hammer of Witches"

Under Dominican pressure, in 1326, then Pope John XXII responded by making witchcraft an official heresy. Over one hundred years later two well educated Dominican monks by the names of Heinrich Kramer and James Springler wrote a horrindous three part manual called “Malleus Maleficarum (The Hammer of Witches or just Witches Hammer)”.

The manual was based on the passage “thou shalt not suffer a witch to live”(Exodus 22:18). This “book” was on how to identify and legally coerse confessions of suspected practioners, who for the record wetre almost always considered guilty before they were ever even arrested. In this manual, torture is noted as an acceptable means to gain a confession.

The first part describes how supposedly the Devil who has permission from God, tempts people with either succubi and incubi, and would turn them into animals.

The second part, outlines how how people are “bewitched” by the spells witches cast. This would include the following but not limited to pacts with the Devil, the sacrifice of children, and sexual relations with Satan himself. These stories were loosely based on the very real inquisitions carried pout by both Kramer and Sprengler.

The third and final part provided methods in which to gather the evidence and testomony needed as was outlined in the interogation and torture techniques.

Judges were allowed to lie, promising mercy if only the accused would confess. When in the end the death of the accused would be considered an act for the good of the public by those same judges. More so the manual often contradicted itself. In one such example it states that many good people were susceptable to the influence of Demonic beings, and would later say that only the wicked are vulnarable. Although the Catholic Church officially banned “The Witches Hammer” in 1490, it was repeatedly republished well into the late 1660's.

During that time Inquizitors and witch hunters would use it as a how to guide. And for the exception of the Bible it was the second most sold book/manual for two hundred years after the publication in 1486.

It must be noted that from the time it banned the Malleus Maleficarum till its whittled down nothingness, the church turned a blind eye to the continued use of it by inquizitors acting in the churches name. Which led many to feel that the ban was more of a fear driven populous vote than an actual measure towards witchcraft.

Below are the parts and chapters and questions to each that were used to determin innocence or guilt.


Part 1
Question I
Whether the Belief that there are such Beings as Witches is so Essential a Part of the Catholic Faith that Obstinacy to maintain the Opposite Opinion manifestly savours of Heresy.
Question II
If it be in Accordance with the Catholic Faith to maintain that in Order to bring about some Effect of Magic, the Devil must intimately co-operate with the Witch, or whether one without the other, that is to say, the Devil without the Witch, or conversely, could produce such an Effect.
Question III
Whether Children can be Generated by Incubi and Succubi.
Question IV
By which Devils are the Operations of Incubus and Succubus Practised?
Question V
What is the Source of the Increase of Works of Witchcraft? Whence comes it that the Practice of Witchcraft hath so notably increased?
Question VI
Concerning Witches who copulate with Devils. Why is it that Women are chiefly addicted to Evil superstitions?
Question VII
Whether Witches can Sway the Minds of Men to Love or Hatred.
Question VIII
Whether Witches can Hebetate the Powers of Generation or Obstruct the Venereal Act.
Question IX
Whether Witches may work some Prestidigatory Illusion so that the Male Organ appears to be entirely removed and separate from the Body.
Question X
Whether Witches can by some Glamour Change Men into Beasts.
Question XI
That Witches who are Midwives in Various Ways Kill the Child Conceived in the Womb, and Procure an Abortion; or if they do not this Offer New-born Children to Devils.
Question XII
Whether the Permission of Almighty God is an Accompaniment of Witchcraft.
Question XIII
Herein is set forth the Question, concerning the Two Divine Permissions which God justly allows, namely, that the Devil, the Author or all Evil, should Sin, and that our First Parents should Fall, from which Origins the Works of Witches are justly suffered to take place.
Question XIV
The Enormity of Witches is Considered, and it is shown that the Whole Matter should be rightly Set Forth and Declared.
Question XV
It is Shown that, on Account of the Sins of Witches, the Innocent are often Bewitched, yea, Sometimes even for their Own Sins.
Question XVI
The Foregoing Truths are Set out in Particular, this by a Comparison of the Works of Witches with Other Baleful Superstitions.
Question XVII
A Comparison of their Crimes under Fourteen Heads, with the Sins of the Devils of all and every Kind.
Question XVIII
Here follows the Method of Preaching against and Controverting Five Arguments of Laymen and Lewd Folk, which seem to be Variously Approved, that God does not Allow so Great Power to the Devil and Witches as is involved in the Performance of such Mighty Works of Witchcraft.

Part 2
Question I
Of those against whom the Power of Witches availeth not at all.
Chapter I
Of the several Methods by which Devils through Witches Entice and Allure the Innocent to the Increase of that Horrid Craft and Company.
Chapter II
Of the Way whereby a Formal Pact with Evil is made.
Chapter III
How they are Transported from Place to Place.
Chapter IV
Here follows the Way whereby Witches copulate with those Devils known as Incubi.
Chapter V
Witches commonly perform their Spells through the Sacraments of the Church. And how they Impair the Powers of Generation, and how they may Cause other Ills to happen to God's Creatures of all kinds. But herein we except the Question of the Influence of the Stars.
Chapter VI
How Witches Impede and Prevent the Power of Procreation.
Chapter VII
How, as it were, they Deprive Man of his Virile Member.
Chapter VIII
Of the Manner whereby they Change Men into the Shapes of Beasts.
Chapter IX
How Devils may enter the Human Body and the Head without doing any Hurt, when they cause such Metamorphosis by Means of Prestidigitation.
Chapter X
Of the Method by which Devils through the Operations of Witches sometimes actually possess men.
Chapter XI
Of the Method by which they can Inflict Every Sort of Infirmity, generally Ills of the Graver Kind.
Chapter XII
Of the Way how in Particular they Afflict Men with Other Like Infirmities.
Chapter XIII
How Witch Midwives commit most Horrid Crimes when they either Kill Children or Offer them to Devils in most Accursed Wise.
Chapter XIV
Here followeth how Witches Injure Cattle in Various Ways.
Chapter XV
How they Raise and Stir up Hailstorms and Tempests, and Cause Lightning to Blast both Men and Beasts.
Chapter XVI
Of Three Ways in which Men and Women may be Discovered to be Addicted to Witchcraft: Divided into Three Heads: and First of the Witchcraft of Archers.
Question II
Introduction, wherein is Set Forth the Difficulty of this Question.
Chapter I
The Remedies prescribed by the Holy Church against Incubus and Succubus Devils.
Chapter II
Remedies prescribed for Those who are Bewitched by the Limitation of the Generative Power.
Chapter III
Remedies prescribed for those who are Bewitched by being Inflamed with Inordinate Love or Extraordinary Hatred.
Chapter IV
Remedies presribed for those who by Prestidigitative Art have lost their Virile Members or have seemingly been Transformed into the Shapes of Beasts.
Chapter V
Prescribed Remedies for those who are Obsessed owing to some Spell.
Chapter VI
Prescribed Remedies; to wit, the Lawful Exorcisms of the Church, for all Sorts of Infirmities and Ills due to Witchcraft; and the Method of Exorcising those who are Bewitched.
Chapter VII
Remedies prescribed against Hailstorms, and for animals that are Bewitched.
Chapter VIII
Certain Remedies prescribed against those Dark and Horrid Harms with which Devils may Afflict Men.

Part 3
General and Introductory
Who are the Fit and Proper Judges in the Trial of Witches?
Question I
The Method of Initiating a Process
Question II
Of the Number of Witnesses
Question III
Of the Solemn Adjuration and Re-examination of Witnesses
Question IV
Of the Quality and Condition of Witnesses
Question V
Whether Mortal Enemies may be Admitted as Witnesses
Question VI
How the Trial is to be Proceeded with and Continued. And how the Witnesses are to be Examined in the Presence of Four Other Persons, and how the Accused is to be Questioned in Two Ways
Question VII
In Which Various Doubts are Set Forth with Regard to the Foregoing Questions and Negative Answers. Whether the Accused is to be Imprisoned, and when she is to be considered Manifestly Taken in the Foul Heresy of Witchcraft. This is the Second Action
Question VIII
Which Follows from the Preceding Question, Whether the Witch is to be Imprisoned, and of the Method of Taking her. This is the Third Action of the Judge
Question IX
What is to be done after the Arrest, and whether the Names of the Witnesses should be made Known to the Accused. This is the Fourth Action
Question X
What Kind of Defence may be Allowed, and of the Appointment of an Advocate. This is the Fifth Action
Question XI
What Course the Advocate should Adopt when the Names of the Witnesses are not Revealed to him. Ths Sixth Action
Question XII
Of the Same Matter, Declaring more Particularly how the Question of Personal Enmity is to be Investigated. The Seventh Action
Question XIII
Of the Points to be Observed by the Judge before the Formal Examination in the Place of Detention and Torture. This is the Eighth Action
Question XIV
Of the Method of Sentencing the Accused to be Questioned: and How she must be Questioned on the First Day; and Whether she may be Promised her Life. The Ninth Action
Question XV
Of the Continuing of the Torture, and of the Devices and Signs by which the Judge can Recognize a Witch; and how he ought to Protect himself from their Spells. Also how they are to be Shaved in Parts where they use to Conceal the Devil's Masks and Tokens; together with the due Setting Forth of Various Means of Overcoming the Obstinacy in Keeping Silence and Refusal to Confess. And it is the Tenth Action
Question XVI
Of the fit Time and of the Method of the Second Examination. And it is the Eleventh Action, concerning the Final Precautions to be Observed by the Judge
The Third Head
Which is the last Part of this Work. How the Process is to be Concluded by the Pronouncement of a Definite and Just Sentence
Question XVII
Of Common Purgation, and especially of the Trial of Red-hot Iron, to which Witches Appeal
Question XVIII
Of the Manner of Pronouncing a Sentence which is Final and Definitive
Question XIX
Of the Various Degrees of Overt Suspicion which render the Accused liable to be Sentenced
Question XX
Of the Firth Method of Pronouncing Sentence
Question XXI
Of the Second Method of Pronouncing Sentence, when the Accused is no more than Defamed
Question XXII
Of the Third Kind of Sentence, to be Pronounced on one who is Defamed, and who is to be put to the Question
Question XXIII
The Fourth Method of Sentencing, in the Case of one Accused upon a Light Suspicion
Question XXIV
The Fifth Manner of Sentence, in the Case of one under Strong Suspicion
Question XXV
The Sixth Kind of Sentence, in the Case of one who is Gravely Suspect
Question XXVI
The Method of passing Sentence upon one who is both Suspect and Defamed
Question XVII
The Method of passing Sentence upon one who hath Confessed to Heresy, but is still not Penitent
Question XVIII
The Method of passing Sentence upon one who hath Confessed to Heresy but is Relapsed, Albeir now Penitent
Question XXIX
The Method of passing Sentence upon one who hath Confessed to Heresy but is Impenitent, although not Relapsed
Question XXX
Of One who has Confessed to Heresy, is Relapsed, and is also Impenitent
Question XXXI
Of One Taken and Convicted, but Denying Everything
Question XXXII
Of One who is Convicted but who hath Fled or who Contumaciously Absents himself
Question XXXIII
Of the Method of passing Sentence upon one who has been Accused by another Witch, who has been or is to be Burned at the Stake
Question XXXIV
Of the Method of passing Sentence upon a Witch who Annuls Spells wrought by Witchcraft; and of Witch Midwives and Archer-Wizards
Question XXXV
Finally, of the Method of passing Sentence upon Witches who Enter or Cause to be Entered an Appeal, whether such be Frivolous or Legitimate and just

Now imagine answering all these questions while be tortured in unimaginable ways. It was not an uncommon event for these investigations to take hours if not a matter of days. However long it would take should remain irrellevant due to the fact that the inquizators were going to ask these question until they reached the end of them or the accused died as a result of them being asked.


questions parts and chapter index courtesy of http://www.sacred-texts.com/pag/mm/

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Patchwork Merchant Mercenaries had its humble beginnings as an idea of a few artisans and craftsmen who enjoy performing with live steel fighting. As well as a patchwork quilt tent canvas. Most had prior military experience hence the name.

 

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Vendertainers that brought many things to a show and are know for helping out where ever they can.

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We expanded over the years to become well known at what we do. Now we represent over 100 artisans and craftsman that are well known in their venues and some just starting out. Some of their works have been premiered in TV, stage and movies on a regular basis.

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Patchwork Merchant Mercenaries a Dept of, Ask For IT was started by artists and former military veterans, and sword fighters, representing over 100 artisans, one who made his living traveling from fair to festival vending medieval wares. The majority of his customers are re-enactors, SCAdians and the like, looking to build their kit with period clothing, feast gear, adornments, etc.

Likewise, it is typical for these history-lovers to peruse the tent (aka mobile store front) and, upon finding something that pleases the eye, ask "Is this period?"

A deceitful query!! This is not a yes or no question. One must have a damn good understanding of European history (at least) from the fall of Rome to the mid-1600's to properly answer. Taking into account, also, the culture in which the querent is dressed is vitally important. You see, though it may be well within medieval period, it would be strange to see a Viking wearing a Caftan...or is it?

After a festival's time of answering weighty questions such as these, I'd sleep like a log! Only a mad man could possibly remember the place and time for each piece of kitchen ware, weaponry, cloth, and chain within a span of 1,000 years!! Surely there must be an easier way, a place where he could post all this knowledge...

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