700 - 800 AD
Chinese Invent Gunpowder, Srivijaya Empire, Walid I, Wu Hou Empress Of China, Muslim Army Conquers Tangiers, Islamic Conquest Of Spain, Kingdom Of Asturias, Battle Of Tours, Abu-Al Abbas Accepts A Public Oath, Pepin The Short, AL Mansur, Charlemagne, Al-Mahdi Reigns, Harun Al Rashid, Kyoto Founded
700 AD Chinese Invent Gunpowder-The Chinese combined saltpeter, sulpher, and carbon to create gun powder. The Chinese used gun powder primarily for fireworks.
700 AD Srivijaya Empire (Indonesia)-The Srivijaya Empire becomes the leading power in Indonesia. The Srivijayas originated in southern Sumatra. They controlled commercial trade routes through the islands.
705 AD Walid I- Malik I was succeeded by his son Walid. Under Walid's reign, the Omayyad Caliphate reached India in the East and Spain in the west. Many important structures were completed under his stewardship including the Dome of the Rock Mosque in Jerusalem.
705 AD Wu Hou Empress Of China - Wu Hou became Empress of China in 705. She was the first woman to rule China and during her reign strengthened the T'ang Dynasty.
707 AD Muslim Army Conquers Tangiers - Tangiers was captured by Muslim armies under the command of Musa ibn-Nusayr in 707. Musa was the Ommayad governor of North Africa. The Moroccan Berbers were subdued by Musa.
711 AD Islamic Conquest Of Spain- The Islamic conquest of Spain began when Tariq, a Muslim general, crossed the Straits of Gibraltar. On July 26th his army of 7,000 men defeated Roderick, the last King of the Visigoths at the Battle of Wadi Bekka. The Muslims went on to the conquest of Spain, advancing to the Pyrenees by 718 A.D.
711 AD Charlemagne- Charlemagne became the Frankish ruler in the east upon the death of his brother Caroman I. Until his brother's death, Charlemagne had ruled the Neustri and Aquitaine. In a series of campaigns, Charlemgne expanded his empire to include all of Germany . He maintained very close ties to the Pope, thus increasing church influence.
718 AD Pelayo Founded Kingdom Of Asturias- Pelayo defeated the Muslims at Covadonga in Northwest Spain. Pelayo, a Christian, created the Kingdom of Asturias.
730 AD Khazar Defeat Arabs. Khazar commander Barjik leads Khazar troops through the Darial Pass to invade Azerbaijan. At the Battle of Ardabil, the Khazars defeat an entire Arab army. The Battle of Ardabil lasted three days, and resulted in the death of a major Arab general named Jarrah. The Khazars then conquered Azerbaijan and Armenia and northern Iraq for a brief time.
732 AD Battle Of Tours- At the Battle of Tours, the Franks under Charles Martel, defeated a Muslim expedition led by Adb-el-Rahman across the Pyrenees. This marked the furthest incursion of Muslim forces into Europe.
749 AD Abu-Al Abbas Accepts A Public Oath- The Omayyad Caliphate was overthrown when Abu Al-Abbas, the great-grandson of Muhammad's uncle, took the public oath as leader of the Abbasids. The Omayyads are then defeated at the Battle of the Zab River by the Abbasids. Nearly all members of the Ommayad clan are then murdered by the Abbasids.
754 AD Pepin The Short- Pepin was the King of the Franks. Pope Stephen II sanctified him both as a king and as king of the Frankish Church. Pepin founded the Carolingian Dynasty.
754 AD AL Mansur becomes ruler- With the death of Abu al-Abbas, al-Mansur became his successor. al-Mansur swiftly eliminated all threats to his rule and extended the power of the Abbasid Caliphate.
775 - 785 AD Al-Mahdi Reigns- Al- Mahdi ruled the Abbasid Caliphate for ten years. These were years notable for the improvement of communications within the empire and for the founding of schools and towns. Al-Mahdi also encouraged the arts.
780 - 809 AD Harun Al Rashid- Harun al-Rashid headed the Abbasid Caliphate from 786 to 809. Under his reign, the caliphate reached the height of its power. His court in Baghdad was the center of a rich world of artists, poets and musicians.
794 AD Kyoto Founded- The Kyoto period in Japanese history began when the Emperor moved the capital to a site near that of present-day Kyoto. The period lasted until 1185.