A Male Transvestite Prostitution In 14th Century London: The Testimony of John Rykener

  The Questioning of John Rykener 1395: Original DocumentA Male Transvestite Prostitution In 14th Century London: The Testimony of John Rykener

By Erkan Oruçoğlu

Published Online (2013)

Introduction: Studies of sexuality, homosexuality, and sex in public places, show that homosexual behavior does not give arise automatically, or even necessarily, to a homosexual identity. Homosexual roles and identities are historically constructed. Throughout the history of sexuality, homosexuality and sexual orientations continued to be understood as both acts and identities, also, behaviors, and beings. But, historians and social scientists alike have failed to fit everyone who behaves in a homosexual manner within a definition of “the homosexual” as a unitary type. Actually, it seems, most of them postulate the claims that homosexual identity is in between men and women sexes.

The genealogy of male homosexuality consists of the five categories; effeminacy, sodomy, friendship, inversion, and homosexuality itself. However, most of the studies propound that male homosexuals act as a prostitute, in the role of women, in terms of ‘as a bottom’. A number of studies have suggested that many males who prostitute themselves regard themselves as heterosexual and develop complex strategies to neutralize the significance of their behavior. But, here is a taboo=breaking document from 14th century London, presented here stands practically alone for medieval England as a description of same-sex intercourse, as well as male transvestism. In this respect, I will analyze literally the first person account, the testimony of John Rykener, and try to answer how local authority and officials viewed this personal behavior.

Click here to read this article from Academia.edu

Click here to read The Interrogation of of a Male Transvestite Prostitute in Fourteenth Century London

See also The Questioning of John Rykener, A Male Cross-Dressing Prostitute, 1395 from the Medieval Sourcebook

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Patchwork Merchant Mercenaries had its humble beginnings as an idea of a few artisans and craftsmen who enjoy performing with live steel fighting. As well as a patchwork quilt tent canvas. Most had prior military experience hence the name.


Patchwork Merchant Mercenaries.


Vendertainers that brought many things to a show and are know for helping out where ever they can.

As well as being a place where the older hand made items could be found made by them and enjoyed by all.

We expanded over the years to become well known at what we do. Now we represent over 100 artisans and craftsman that are well known in their venues and some just starting out. Some of their works have been premiered in TV, stage and movies on a regular basis.

Specializing in Medieval, Goth , Stage Film, BDFSM and Practitioner.

Patchwork Merchant Mercenaries a Dept of, Ask For IT was started by artists and former military veterans, and sword fighters, representing over 100 artisans, one who made his living traveling from fair to festival vending medieval wares. The majority of his customers are re-enactors, SCAdians and the like, looking to build their kit with period clothing, feast gear, adornments, etc.

Likewise, it is typical for these history-lovers to peruse the tent (aka mobile store front) and, upon finding something that pleases the eye, ask "Is this period?"

A deceitful query!! This is not a yes or no question. One must have a damn good understanding of European history (at least) from the fall of Rome to the mid-1600's to properly answer. Taking into account, also, the culture in which the querent is dressed is vitally important. You see, though it may be well within medieval period, it would be strange to see a Viking wearing a Caftan...or is it?

After a festival's time of answering weighty questions such as these, I'd sleep like a log! Only a mad man could possibly remember the place and time for each piece of kitchen ware, weaponry, cloth, and chain within a span of 1,000 years!! Surely there must be an easier way, a place where he could post all this knowledge...

Traveling Within The World is meant to be such a place. A place for all of these artists to keep in touch and directly interact with their fellow geeks and re-enactment hobbyists, their clientele.

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