Mandrake Anesthesia Drugs in the Medieval Muslim Era

Dr. Ali Muhammad Bhat (Dept. of Islamic Studies IUST Awantipora Pulwama Srinagar Jammu and Kashmir 192122)

International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research: Volume 4, Issue3, March (2013)


Pain is difficult to measure in humans because it has an emotional or psychological as well as a physical component. Some people express extreme discomfort from relatively small injuries, while others show little or no pain even after suffering severe injury. The signals that warn the body tissue damage are transmitted through the nervous system. In this system, the basic unit is the nerve cell or neuron. Each nerve cell meets other nerve cells at certain points on the axons and dendrites, forming a dense network of interconnected nerve fibers that transmit sensory information about touch, pressure, or warmth, as well as pain. Sensory information is transmitted from the different parts of the body to the brain via spinal cord. To overcome pain different types of drugs were used from the very earlier period to restrict the nerve signals for some time in order to provide relief to the patient. At present highly modified drugs are prescribed to ease pain whether at the time of surgery or feeling any kind of pain in the body. In order to highlight the significance of medieval medicine prescribed to ease pain and save human beings from side effects, this topic has great significance in the contemporary era.

Science and medicine belong to no ethnic or national group. Of the countless scientific discoveries made by man, medical discovery are the outline of the many partial contributions made by forerunners throughout the ages. These discoveries are related to universal facts. Countless human sufferings whether psychological or physical needs Medicare in order to provide relief to human beings. Pain is a one-sided occurrence which necessitates the presence of consciousness. It is the sensation which is experienced by Consciousness. From the ages people are in search of pain relieving drugs. Over the ages there has been a demand for techniques in order to endow with relief from different kinds of pains. This whole process has been entitled as anesthesia and analgesics. Anesthesia means absence of physical sensation in part or all of the body. The term more commonly refers to a reversible condition that is stimulated using anesthetic drugs. These drugs may be injected, gulp, or applied directly to the surface of the body.

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Patchwork Merchant Mercenaries had its humble beginnings as an idea of a few artisans and craftsmen who enjoy performing with live steel fighting. As well as a patchwork quilt tent canvas. Most had prior military experience hence the name.


Patchwork Merchant Mercenaries.


Vendertainers that brought many things to a show and are know for helping out where ever they can.

As well as being a place where the older hand made items could be found made by them and enjoyed by all.

We expanded over the years to become well known at what we do. Now we represent over 100 artisans and craftsman that are well known in their venues and some just starting out. Some of their works have been premiered in TV, stage and movies on a regular basis.

Specializing in Medieval, Goth , Stage Film, BDFSM and Practitioner.

Patchwork Merchant Mercenaries a Dept of, Ask For IT was started by artists and former military veterans, and sword fighters, representing over 100 artisans, one who made his living traveling from fair to festival vending medieval wares. The majority of his customers are re-enactors, SCAdians and the like, looking to build their kit with period clothing, feast gear, adornments, etc.

Likewise, it is typical for these history-lovers to peruse the tent (aka mobile store front) and, upon finding something that pleases the eye, ask "Is this period?"

A deceitful query!! This is not a yes or no question. One must have a damn good understanding of European history (at least) from the fall of Rome to the mid-1600's to properly answer. Taking into account, also, the culture in which the querent is dressed is vitally important. You see, though it may be well within medieval period, it would be strange to see a Viking wearing a Caftan...or is it?

After a festival's time of answering weighty questions such as these, I'd sleep like a log! Only a mad man could possibly remember the place and time for each piece of kitchen ware, weaponry, cloth, and chain within a span of 1,000 years!! Surely there must be an easier way, a place where he could post all this knowledge...

Traveling Within The World is meant to be such a place. A place for all of these artists to keep in touch and directly interact with their fellow geeks and re-enactment hobbyists, their clientele.

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