A marquess (pronounced /ˈmɑrkwɨs/) or marquis (pronounced /mɑrˈkiː/) (from French "marquis") is a nobleman of hereditary rank in various European monarchies and some of their colonies. The term is also used to render equivalent oriental styles as in imperial China and Japan. In the British peerage it ranks below a duke and above an earl (see Marquesses in the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth). In Europe it is usually equivalent where a cognate title exists. A woman with the rank of marquess, or the wife of a marquess, is a marchioness (in British usage) (pronounced /ˌmɑrʃəˈnɛs/), or a marquise (in Europe, pronounced /mɑrˈkiːz/).

 Marquesal titles in other European languages

The following list may still be incomplete. Feminine forms follow after a slash; many languages have two words, one for the "modern" marquess and one for the original margrave.

In Italy the equivalent modern rank (as opposed to margravio) is that of marchese, the wife of whom is a marchesa, a good example of how several languages adopted a new word derived from marquis for the modern style, thus distinguishing it from the old "military" margraves. Even where neither title was ever used domestically, such duplication to describe foreign titles can exist.

 Germanic languages

  • Danish: Markis, Markgreve / Markise, Markgrevinde
  • Dutch: Markgraaf, Markies / Markgravin, Markiezin
  • Faroese: Markgreivi / Markgreivakona
  • German: Markgraf, Marquis / Markgräfin, Marquise or Reichsgraf / Reichsgräfin
  • Icelandic: Markgreifi / Markgreifynja
  • Norwegian: Markis / Markise
  • Scots: Marquis / Marchioness
  • Swedish: Markis, Markgreve / Markisinna, Markgrevinna

 Romance languages

  • Catalan: Marquès, Marcgravi / Marquesa
  • French: Marquis, Margrave / Marquise
  • Italian: Margravio, Marchese / Marchesa
  • Latin: Marchio
  • Monegasque: Marchise / Marchisa
  • Portuguese: Margrave, Marquês / Marquesa
  • Rhaeto-Romanic: Marchis / Marchesa
  • Romanian: Marchiz / Marchiză
  • Spanish: Marqués / Marquesa

 Slavonic and Baltic languages

  • Belarusian: Markiz / Markiza
  • Bosnian: Markiz / Markiza
  • Bulgarian: Markiz / Markiza
  • Croatian: Markiz / Markiza
  • Czech: Markýz / Markýza
  • Latvian: Marķīzs / Marķīze
  • Lithuanian: Markizas / Markizė
  • Macedonian: Markiz(Маркиз) / Markiza(Маркиза)
  • Polish: Margrabia, Markiz / Margrabina, Markiza
  • Russian: Markiz / Markiza
  • Serbian: Markiz / Markiza
  • Slovak: Markíz / Markíza
  • Slovene: Markiz / Markiza
  • Ukrainian: Markiz / Markiza

  Other languages

  • Albanian: Markiz / Markizë
  • Estonian: Markii/Markiis or Markkrahv / Markkrahvinna
  • Finnish: Rajakreivi / Rajakreivitär or simply Markiisi /Markiisitar
  • Georgian: Aznauri/Markizi
  • Greek: Μαρκήσιος, Markēsios / Μαρκησία, Markēsía
  • Hungarian: Őrgróf (Márki) / Őrgrófnő (Márkinő) / Őrgrófné (consort of an Őrgróf)
  • Maltese: Markiż / Markiża
  • Turkish: Markiz

  Equivalent non-Western titles

Like other major Western noble titles, marquess or marquis is sometimes used to render certain titles in non-Western languages with their own traditions, even though they are, as a rule, historically unrelated and thus hard to compare. However, they are considered "equivalent" in relative rank.

This is the case with:

  • in ancient China, 侯 (hóu) was the second of five noble ranks created by King Wu of Zhou and is generally translated as marquess or marquis.
  • in imperial China, 侯 (hóu) is generally, but not always, a middle-to-high ranking hereditary nobility title. Its exact rank varies greatly from dynasty to dynasty, and even within a dynasty. It is often created with different sub-ranks.
  • in Meiji Japan, Kōshaku (侯爵), a hereditary peerage (Kazoku) rank, was introduced in 1884, granting a hereditary seat in the upper house of the imperial diet just as a British peerage did (until Tony Blair's House of Lords Act 1999), with the ranks usually rendered as baron, viscount, count, marquis and duke. The Japanese rendered these titles in Chinese (though there the titles devalue when a new generation succeeds), though the Western titles were used in translation.
  • in Korea, the title of Hyeonhu (현후, 縣侯), of which the meaning is "marquess of district", existed for the hereditary nobility in the Goryeo dynasty. It was equivalent to the upper fifth rank of nine bureaucratic orders, and was in the third rank of six nobility orders. In the Joseon dynasty, there was no title equivalent to marquess.
  • in Vietnam's Annamite realm / empire, hau (Hán tự: 侯) was a senior title of hereditary nobility, equivalent to marquis, for male members of the imperial clan, ranking under vuong (king), quoc-cong (grand duke), quan-cong (duke) and cong (prince, but here under duke, rather like a German Fürst), and above ba (count), tu (viscount), nam (baron) and vinh phong (no equivalent).

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Patchwork Merchant Mercenaries had its humble beginnings as an idea of a few artisans and craftsmen who enjoy performing with live steel fighting. As well as a patchwork quilt tent canvas. Most had prior military experience hence the name.

 

Patchwork Merchant Mercenaries.

 

Vendertainers that brought many things to a show and are know for helping out where ever they can.

As well as being a place where the older hand made items could be found made by them and enjoyed by all.

We expanded over the years to become well known at what we do. Now we represent over 100 artisans and craftsman that are well known in their venues and some just starting out. Some of their works have been premiered in TV, stage and movies on a regular basis.

Specializing in Medieval, Goth , Stage Film, BDFSM and Practitioner.

Patchwork Merchant Mercenaries a Dept of, Ask For IT was started by artists and former military veterans, and sword fighters, representing over 100 artisans, one who made his living traveling from fair to festival vending medieval wares. The majority of his customers are re-enactors, SCAdians and the like, looking to build their kit with period clothing, feast gear, adornments, etc.

Likewise, it is typical for these history-lovers to peruse the tent (aka mobile store front) and, upon finding something that pleases the eye, ask "Is this period?"

A deceitful query!! This is not a yes or no question. One must have a damn good understanding of European history (at least) from the fall of Rome to the mid-1600's to properly answer. Taking into account, also, the culture in which the querent is dressed is vitally important. You see, though it may be well within medieval period, it would be strange to see a Viking wearing a Caftan...or is it?

After a festival's time of answering weighty questions such as these, I'd sleep like a log! Only a mad man could possibly remember the place and time for each piece of kitchen ware, weaponry, cloth, and chain within a span of 1,000 years!! Surely there must be an easier way, a place where he could post all this knowledge...

Traveling Within The World is meant to be such a place. A place for all of these artists to keep in touch and directly interact with their fellow geeks and re-enactment hobbyists, their clientele.

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